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DarkIce streaming client, 376-378 darkice.cfg file, 376, 377, 378 database update page, Drupal, 363 databases installing MySQL, 349-350 updatedb command, GNU Linux, 384 dBFS (deciBels from Full Scale), 286 signals exceeding 0dBFS, 287 dBSPL (deciBels of Sound Pressure Level), 286 dd command, GNU Linux, 392 deb package format, 15 debconf installing Drupal, 351 Debian distribution, GNU Linux, 9, 15 runlevels, 390 decay control, Hydrogen, 231 decibels, 285 defragmenting Windows drive, 29 depmod...

Installing the Apache Web Server

On GNU Linux systems, no hard line exists between desktop and server machines. You can install server packages on your regular PC without having to change the operating system. A dedicated server machine runs only those packages required for the task, which greatly simplifies security and administration. However, by using localhost, the system's network address for itself, you can run both a server and a desktop with a web browser on the same machine. This approach is valid for experimentation...

Creating Initial Site Content

So far, your web site doesn't have much to say. The front page still shows a Welcome to your new Drupal web site message, which is only intended to be seen by you, the site owner. You can remedy that by using the Create content link on the left navigation bar. The default installation provides links for two kinds of text content Page and Story (see Figure 12-27). The Page content type is similar to the pages on a static web site, whereas the Story type is much more Web 2.0, with automatic links...

Burn Baby Burn

Many Free Software disc-authoring tools are available, both command-line and graphical, and practically all of them can make valid audio CD-Rs. Most of these tools, like their proprietary equivalents, treat the audio tracks as if they were generic files, listing them in a window with track-length information. In contrast, GNOME CD Master (GNU Linux) draws the audio data as a waveform, which, as you read earlier, is a digital representation of the real-life audio wave. This feature allows you to...

Spot Healing Tool Drupal

H.264 video codec, 322, 326 hackers, history of computer programs, 4 halt command, GNU Linux, 388 handles, resizing and reshaping shape tools, Inkscape, 97 hard disks, partitioning, 22-25 Hard Limiter plug-in, 294 hardware drivers, GNOME, 38 hardware, safely removing, 36 HDEQ (hand-drawn equalizer), JAMin, 299, 300 head command, GNU Linux, 385 Healing tool, the GIMP, 86 help system, GNU Linux finding useful man pages, 384 man pages, 388 help system, Ubuntu shortcut to, 37 hidden system files,...

Text and Fonts

For the sharpest possible results, typography should usually be done with vector graphics, which you look at in the next chapter. However, in some circumstances, using a bitmap (pixel-based) program like the GIMP to put text on an image is appropriate. Creating graphic buttons for the Web is a common example, because bitmaps should look the same in any web browser. Click the icon for the Text tool, which is a big, black, bold letter A. In the options panel of the GIMP's Toolbox, you see the...

Reaching the Limit

Just above the Limiter, which is at lower right in the JAMin interface, is a Boost control. You can use it for a quick and dirty increase in output level, but do so with caution unless you're deliberately aiming for a distorted effect. The Boost control is meant to simulate a mildly overdriven valve amplifier for a warm sound, but you have to judge for yourself whether an effect of this nature is useful to you, or if it should have been added back at the mixing stage. Next is the look-ahead...

Security Updates

If there are any problems with your Drupal installation, the software warns you on this page. In Figure 12-17, Drupal says to check the Status report page for a problem report. It also warns that a security update is available for Drupal. It's important to take notice of these warnings having a web site that only partially works is bad enough, but security holes can allow your web server to be taken over by spammers, phishers, scammers, and other criminally...

The Seq Song Editor

If clicking the loops to trigger them live doesn't appeal to you, you can also chain sequences together into a complete song. Click the stop button in the lower-left corner of the seq24 main window to halt playback, and then click the pencil button in the lower-right corner. The song editor appears, with any loops you've made listed at left. You can insert these loops into the song in the same way as for individual notes by right-clicking to make the pencil icon appear, then left clicking in...

Other Useful Programs

Neither of the following programs is available in Ubuntu yet, but you can download them as source code from the www.kokkinizita.net linuxaudio web site along with a variety of other tools suitable for use in mixing and mastering Jconv GNU Linux A convolution engine for JACK. Reverberation is sampled from real spaces, such as cathedrals, using the impulse response technique. This naturalistic reverb can then be applied to a digital mix using convolution. Jkmeter GNU Linux An audio mastering...

Zooming and Measuring

After the Color Picker pipette icon, next in the GIMP's Toolbox are the Zoom tool, which has a magnifying glass icon, and the Measure tool, which looks like the kind of compass used on a drawing board. The Zoom tool is straightforward click to zoom in on an image, and Ctrl click to zoom out. To save yourself switching tools constantly, you can use the keyboard shortcuts of plus and minus - . The only problem with these default shortcuts is that on many keyboards, you have to hold down the Shift...

Adding Opening Titles

All good movies start with the title and credits for the major protagonists. The people who did the catering have to wait until the very end of the movie before they get to see their names, in a very small font, up on the screen. Choose Project gt Save As or Project gt New Project, and give your video a name. Unusually, with Open Movie Editor, you don't need to remember to save the project as you go along, because all edit decisions are written to the project file. Next, click the Filters amp...

The Seq Configuration File

On startup, seq24 reads in preferences from the file .seq24rc a hidden file in your home directory . Close seq24 first, and you can then modify this human-readable file in a terminal with a text editor for example, using the nano editor By default, seq24 manages MIDI connections itself, indicated in the following stanza of the .seq24rc set to 1 if you want seq24 to create its own alsa ports and not connect to other clients 0 This 0 in the last line is a user-friendly setting, because as you've...

Hope You Like JAMin

The core tools of the digital audio mastering engineer aren't all that different from those used in the mix compression, limiting, and equalization again. The main difference is that mastering plug-ins are generally less invasive, because they're not meant to have an obvious effect. You're only supposed to notice the increase in average level and how much better the mix translates to different playback systems, not any change in tonal color or increase in distortion. It's possible to master a...

Cropping and Resizing

After your video material is loaded into Avidemux and is playing back correctly, and you can hear the sound, you can use the editing features in the program before you perform the output encoding. Often, if you're preparing video for the Internet, you have to reduce the resolution, change the aspect ratio, or cut it in length. Skipping this step may mean your video is edited or resized automatically by the video server, which can lead to unacceptable results. Suppose you have some digital...

Triggering Hydrogen Drums with

Because the Hydrogen drum machine accepts both MIDI input and JACK transport control, you have two options for synchronizing it with sequences created in seq24. You can either make a drum pattern in seq24 and trigger Hydrogen on MIDI channel 10 or create the pattern in Hydrogen's sequencer and use seq24's play button to get the transport rolling. Hydrogen accepts MIDI input on any channel, but you can get specific by choosing File gt Preferences gt MIDI System gt Channel. If you want to, you...

Shape Tools

Inkscape has a good selection of preformatted shape tools to satisfy the five-year old potato printer in you. These shape tools provide a useful way to start playing around with the possibilities of this application, and it's possible to achieve many different effects. You can manipulate the shapes via their nodes small square ones for resizing, and round ones for reshaping. Drawn shapes are objects by default, rather than paths, but as usual you can convert them to paths with the Path gt...

The DTP Revolution

Although personal computers quickly replaced the humble typewriter, the art of typesetting and laying out high-quality printed documents took a little longer to go digital. True desktop publishing software is usually known by its acronym, DTP. This kind of program differs from word processors and home or small-office publishing packages in the precise level of control over the document that it enables. Designed for high-speed use by an experienced operator, a true DTP program doesn't try to...

Importing Glyphs from Inkscape

If you've considered creating letter shapes in Inkscape, you'll be pleased to discover that FontForge can import Inkscape's SVG files directly see Figure 4-34 . Again, you need to save each glyph in its own file in order to import it into FontForge, but in this case you choose Format SVG from the Import dialog box. The Inkscape document for your glyph should be 1000 pixels high and 1000 pixels wide. Figure 4-34. A hand-drawn capital F from Inkscape saved in SVG format and imported directly into...

Compiling Open Movie Editor from Source

Most GNU Linux distros don't have an up-to-date package of Open Movie Editor. Because the program is still under heavy development, it's worth getting the latest version if you intend to use the program regularly. This usually involves compiling the application from source code, which may be daunting if you've never tried it before. However, it's a step-by-step process, and when it goes wrong, the computer tells you why even if the message is a little cryptic to the uninitiated. A search engine...

Inkscape An SVG Drawing Tool

The leading Free Software application for working with two-dimensional vector graphics is Inkscape GNU Linux, Windows, Mac see Figure 4-3. This program isn't usually included in a default installation of GNU Linux, but if you're running Ubuntu, you can easily get Inkscape using the Add Remove Applications tool. You can find this tool at the foot of the main Applications menu, on the top left of Ubuntu's GNOME desktop. Ready-made Inkscape packages are available for just about all other popular...

Making It Pretty

Many self-produced CDs have a rough-and-ready look, but with a little care and an ink-jet printer, their appearance can be improved a great deal. First, there's the question of what to do with the disc surface. Sticky labels can be fed on a sheet into most kinds of printer, although they can be tricky to apply smoothly. Blank discs with printable surfaces are readily available, but of course you need hardware that explicitly supports printing directly on to CDs. My own experience is that...

The Scale Tool

The Scale tool's icon is two adjacent blue boxes connected by a diagonal arrow. Scaling in the GIMP works similarly to rotation a pop-up dialog box lets you enter precise figures, but you can also perform the required action by clicking and dragging on the image. In order to preserve the aspect ratio of the original image, you need to make sure the chain icon in the dialog box, to the right of the Width and Height numbers, is showing as linked, rather than broken. To toggle this setting, either...

Getting Video from a Camera Tape

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So far, you've looked at importing video as a file. The process of importing video from a camera with a hard disk and a USB socket, or a model that records onto memory cards, is similar to importing from DVD. However, many digital video cameras don't use file-based storage. The Digital Video DV standard has been around since the mid 1990s and is a linear format, not a random-access format like video files on a hard disk. DV cameras use a variety of tape cassette sizes, most often in the MiniDV...

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Clipping, the loss of audio data, spells trouble. In this example, the upper track is too quiet, but the lower track is too loud and clipped. In the days of analog tape recorders, it was necessary to get the recording as loud as you dared, because the inherent noise of the system punished a sound engineer who allowed too much headroom between the peaks in amplitude and the maximum 0 level. With digital recording and a decent microphone, there is much less inherent noise, so you can...

Moving Rotating and Scaling objects

With only the cube selected, click the red, green, or blue arrowhead of the 3D Transform Manipulator to drag the object in that direction and back again see Figure 6-8 . It's as if the object slides on a rail, and Blender provides thin red and green guidelines on the plane to help you remember which axis is which. Notice how the cube looks larger as it gets closer to the camera on the plane and smaller as it gets further away that's 3D perspective. If this isn't working for you, then again it...

Streaming Audio

Darkice Applet

Serving audio and video files as individual downloads from Drupal is one thing, but what about live streams Some streams are of media as it happens, like a traditional radio or TV station with human presenters and DJs. Due to cost-cutting and consolidation in the media business, many radio stations and smaller TV stations are now partly or completely automated, streaming media files from a prearranged playlist on a hard disk. Either way, Free Software includes everything you need to stream...

Getting Seq and Alsa ModularSynth

The seq24 sequencer download from www.filter24.org seq24 at first glance is easy to dismiss as a simple application see Figure 8-27 . It doesn't have the bells and whistles of contemporary proprietary sequencing applications, and it looks minimal compared to its Free Software counterparts. In this simplicity lies seq24's great strength it does one job well, and perhaps because of that, it's stable and doesn't take long to learn. Former users of the Atari ST or Akai MPC should find the interface...

The Importance of Storyboarding

Good quality, hand-drawn animation takes a lot of work for a lot of people, and that makes it expensive to produce. To create the optical illusion of smooth motion, a high frame rate is required just as with a film or video camera which means a lot of drawing for the artists to do. The exact number of frames per second depends on the film camera or video format being used traditionally, these rates were from 24 frames up to 30 frames per second, but some newer high-definition video formats use...

Selecting Colors from an Image

The final tool in the Inkscape toolbox is Pick Colors from the Image, which has a pipette icon and cursor just like the similar tool in the GIMP see Figure 4-24 . Figure 4-24. The Pick Colors from the Image tool fills the currently selected object or path with whatever color is under the pipette cursor when it's clicked. Figure 4-24. The Pick Colors from the Image tool fills the currently selected object or path with whatever color is under the pipette cursor when it's clicked. There's a...

Generating PDFs

In addition to the Scribus native, XML-based file format, which has the extension .sla, the program also supports export to pixmap formats including JPEG and PNG, as well as the vector formats SVG and EPS. You can find these options by choosing File gt Export from the Scribus main menu bar. You can also choose File gt Collect for Output to gather all the components used in your document into a single directory, including the native Scribus file and any fonts used, so you can send it to another...

Installation from the Internet with Wubi

If you're not sure the full Ubuntu installation is for you, but you're after something more usable than the live desktop, there is a middle way. Wubi is a program that runs inside Windows and installs the Ubuntu operating system as if it was a Windows application. If you decide later that you want to proceed with the full Ubuntu installation, you can remove the Wubi install just like you would any Windows program. To get Wubi up and running, you need a Windows 98, 2000, XP, or Vista PC with an...

The Ubuntu Live CD

Now you're ready to put the Ubuntu disk in your CD or DVD drive, and reboot the PC. After you see the usual power-on screen, the optical drive should start to spin the CD. Sometimes, the BIOS displays the message Booting from CD-ROM. A couple of seconds pass, and an Ubuntu welcome screen appears. You have the option to select a language at this stage if you do nothing, the default of English is selected automatically after 30 seconds. Or you can choose a different language and then select Try...

Cropping and Rotation

These commonly used photographic tools are easy to get to grips with. The Crop tool's icon is a scalpel, in reference to darkroom days of the past. Click, hold down the mouse button, and drag around the area of the image you want to keep. When you release the mouse button, the area around the cropping selection darkens to show that it's about to be deleted from the image. In the four corners of the cropping selection are rectangular handles that enable you to move each corner of the area to be...

Converting Video with Avidemux

Avidemux GNU Linux, Windows, Mac is a Free Software video-editing application designed for simple cutting, filtering, and encoding tasks. Its strength lies in its support for a wide variety of video file formats, including AVI, the MPEG-2 files found on DVDs, and the newer MPEG-4 standard. Avidemux also handles a number of popular video and audio codecs out of the box. This makes the program an excellent conversion tool, either working alone or alongside other video-editing applications. You...

Layers and Colors

Like the GIMP and Inkscape, Synfig Studio works with layers but in this program, each object gets its own layer. This can result in a lot of layers being created Each layer has a set of parameters that define how it behaves, including distorting or modifying the layer below it. To create a background to sit behind your bouncing ball, you need to first choose the color and then create a new layer. In the Synfig Studio toolbox menus, select File gt Panels gt Layers. A small window pops up, which...

Bucket Fill and Blends

Just about every pixel-painting program has a fill tool, but the GIMP's version has plenty of special effects to keep you amused. Imagine you want to give the red and yellow bicycle a makeover with some hot pink paint. Select the desired shade in the GIMP's color-selection dialog, and then click the icon for the Bucket Fill tool a dripping pot of blue paint. In the tool's Toolbox options, set the mode to Color erase. Duplicate the original image on a new layer, and begin clicking the red and...

Diagram Connectors

A specialist tool that Inkscape offers is found next in the Toolbox Create Diagram Connectors. It has an icon that looks like a collection of small boxes, but its cursor is a crooked arrow. Imagine that you're using Inkscape to create a flowchart. This tool helps you draw lines between objects that are automatically updated when those objects are moved. To use this tool, mouse over the first object to be linked. A small square with a black outline is visible in the center of the object, which...

Troubleshooting Mixxx

The first time you run Mixxx, you may see an error message about the program not being able to open the default audio device on the system see Figure 8-4 . Figure 8-4. Mixxx tries to open the first sound card on the system by default, but this doesn't always work. On Ubuntu GNU Linux in particular, the PulseAudio sound server can prevent Mixxx from getting direct access to the soundcard. To correct this problem, go to Options gt Preferences on the main menu bar of Mixxx, and, in the Sound...

Compression Limiting and Equalization

Now you've got the tracks in balance, with fades up and down in all the right places, it's time to address three common mix problems Some of the tracks are at an inconsistent level, and it would take forever to sort out with gain fader automation. This is often the case with vocal tracks, particularly when the singer doesn't have much studio experience. Transient bursts of sound push the meters into the red, even though the rest of the track is quiet. Many of the instruments have a muddy,...

Exporting the Session

The multitrack approach to recording and editing is very flexible, but a native Ardour session isn't in a format most people can listen to. You need to export the session so that the results can be played back on a normal hi-fi, portable, or media player. CD audio, from which most lossy Internet formats are encoded, is 2-channel, 16-bit, with a sample rate of 44100Hz. So far, you've only been working with a stereo master bus, and therefore two export channels are no problem. Ardour and JACK use...

Starting Ardour

Ardour doesn't open fully on launch from the Applications gt Sound amp Video menu in Ubuntu, but instead presents a small Session Control window. You can't open Ardour without an associated project a named session must be loaded, even if it doesn't contain any audio yet. So, at this stage, the window has two tabs New Session and Open Session. Click the small triangle to the left of Advanced Options to look at the default settings. You want Create Master Bus checked, because you route all of...

Getting Photos into the Computer

If you're working with a digital still camera, it almost certainly has a USB socket. Using the USB cable supplied with the camera is often the quickest and simplest way to get your photos on to your computer. Although programs like F-Spot GNU Linux , included with Ubuntu by default, can help you manage your photo collection, it isn't strictly necessary to use them. This is because GNU Linux can access the memory card inside a USB-equipped camera as if it were any other storage device. When you...

Working with Scribus

In Ubuntu, open Scribus from the Applications gt Graphics menu in GNOME. Some other GNU Linux distributions place Scribus on the Office menu, although as you've read, a true DTP application is different from an office suite's word processor or wizard-led publishing tool. By default, Scribus opens with a New Document dialog window, with settings for a single page document and tabs for opening existing or recent documents see Figure 7-2 . Figure 7-2. Running Scribus for the first time opens the...

Exporting from KToon

KToon has its own native file format with a .ktn suffix for saving projects, but this is unlikely to be understood by any other program. You have the option to export individual frames as a series of numbered PNG or JPEG images this approach is compatible with a wide range of graphics programs, but given the number of frames required in any animation of significant length, it isn't the most convenient format for playback. In order to put your animation in front of an audience, you need to save...

Toons Drawing Tools

Like the equivalent tool in the GIMP, the freehand Pencil tool in KToon is most useful if you have a graphics tablet see Figure 5-5 . With a mouse, the results tend to be a little shaky. The Rectangle, Ellipse, Line, and Shape Brush tools are likely to be more accurate see Figure 5-6 . There is also a Polyline tool, but it appears incomplete as of KToon version 0.8. With any of these tools, click and hold the mouse button down while you drag the mouse to draw the line or shape. The Text tool is...

Synfig a Tweening Animation Tool

Synfig Studio

Synfig GNU Linux, Windows, Mac is a vector-based 2D graphics application, designed to enable the production of feature-film quality animation with fewer people and resources see Figure 5-10 . It has both a server-side version and a graphical interface version that looks superficially similar to the GIMP. You can install the latter from the Add Remove Programs tool in Ubuntu by selecting the package synfigstudio. If you install just the synfig package, you don't get the graphical interface....

Toon a Tool for Cartoonists

Designed by animators and focused on the needs of the cartoon industry, KToon GNU Linux is a Free Software 2D animation toolkit. It's available with Ubuntu's Add Remove Programs application or as a download from the project's home page at ktoon.toonka.com. Versions for the Mac and Windows are planned but not yet available. You're warned that KToon is still considered beta software and as such may crash or be missing functionality. More so than ever, when you're running beta or other...