Drupal is written in PHP and requires a database, typically MySQL or PostgreSQL. Those are the only real certainties about the environment. Most Drupal sites rely on the popular LAMP stack: Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP. That is far from a requirement, though. It can also run under any web server that can run PHP, including Microsoft's Internet Information Server, nginx, and lighttpd, or even under a Java servlet by using a PHP compiler that outputs Java bytecode. Similarly, there are ports of Drupal to run with Oracle's database, Microsoft's SQL Server, IBM DB2, and the open source SQLite. And, while GNU/Linux is a common operating system, just about any flavor of Unix-like operating system will work. Drupal is also known to run quite well on Windows and Mac OS X.
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